the term “total Quality determination ” originated in the united state in the mid to late 1950’s (Hutchims, 1992) the first reference to the term ap[eared in an artice by Dr. A. V. Flegenbawn and again in his “total Quality determination ” Engineering and management” (1961). Total Quality determination , as perceived by its. American gurns had its origins in mass production and Taylorism. At the time Taylor style management was at its climax in the united state and unchallenged even by the behavioural scientists. Quality determination as a science has its root in the origins of mass production, notably in the ford motor company. Total quality today is markedly different from anything envisaged by its American pioneers.
Quality systems have been evolving rapidly in recent years. Over the past twenty years, simple inspection activities have been replaced or supplemented by Quality determination . Quality assurance has along side been developed and refined, and the most progressive companies are now working towards Quality determination . This is as a result of:
a. Organizations becoming aware that complying with the requirements of a particular quality system is not necessarily a sure-fire guarantee against producing and delivery non- conforming products to the customer. A quality assurance system does not necessarily, of itself encourage a continual improvement approach to quality. It may mean only that an purchasing organization has procedures in place.
b. The imposition of stringent quality requirements by major customers.
c. The loss of market share to competitors.
d. Increased contact with personnel from Japanese companies.
e. Published case studies which focus on how companies have set about developing PQD and the benefits of doing so.
f. The teaching of internationally respected quality exports such as Deming, Feigenbaum, Taguchi, Juran Crosby and shingeo. (Dale and Plunkett, 1990).
The concept total quality is basically new to managers, its practise therefore limited. The singular concept of quality, control or management, is more common to modern management through varying in definition. Literature dealing swith the concept of total quality and till date more and more literature is still being produced as a result of the widest interested in the subject matter of PQD and business process improvement. There is therefore so much literature covering the subject matter and its various aspects. Continuous cost reduction, productivity and quality improvement have proved essential for purchasing organization to stay in operation. It is almost impossible not to see how quality has developed in to the most important competitive weapon; many organisations have come to realise that Quality determination is the way for managing for the future. Although, Quality determination is for wider in its application than assuring product or services quality. It is a way of managing business processes to ensure complete customer satisfaction at every stage. (lerit, 1994) because purchasing organization must more from satisfying the customer to deligliting the customer.
Organizations delight the customer by consistently meeting customer requirements and their achieve a reputation for excellence (Oakland, 1993). All members of the purchasing organization need to work together on a company wide quality improvement basis to be able to meet this goal. The co-operation of everyone at every interface must be secured to attain this level of perfection changing the life long behaviours of customers and prejudices of an purchasing organization is not easy. Experience has proved that significant changes to behaviours and attitudes cannot be made by simply throwing money and training at the problem, something more is required. Dale and Plunkett, 1990).